Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines
What HPV vaccines are available?
Three vaccines are approved by the FDA to prevent HPV infection: Gardasil, Gardasil 9, and Cervarix. All three vaccines prevent infections with HPV types 16 and 18, two high-risk HPVs that cause about 70 percent of cervical cancers and an even higher percentage of some of the other HPV-associated cancers (warts (quadrivalent vaccine. Gardasil 9 prevents infection with the same four HPV types plus five additional high-risk HPV types (31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) and is therefore called a nonavalent, or 9-valent, vaccine. All three vaccines are given through a series of three injections into muscle tissue over a 6-month period.
The FDA has approved Gardasil and Gardasil 9 for use in females ages 9 through 26 for the prevention of HPV-caused cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers; precancerous cervical, vulvar, vaginal, and anal lesions; and genital warts. Gardasil and Gardasil 9 are also approved for use in males for the prevention of HPV-caused anal cancer, precancerous anal lesions, and genital warts. Gardasil is approved for use in males ages 9 through 26, and Gardasil 9 is approved for use in males ages 9 through 15.
Females and males who have previously received Gardasil may be able to also receive Gardasil 9. FDA has information for patients about Gardasil 9 available at http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/UCM426460.pdf.
The Cervarix vaccine is produced by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). It targets two HPV types16 and 18and is called a bivalent vaccine. The FDA has approved Cervarix for use in females ages 9 through 25 for the prevention of cervical cancer caused by HPV.
In addition to providing protection against the HPV types included in these vaccines, the vaccines have been found to provide partial protection against a few additional HPV types that can cause cancer, a phenomenon called cross-protection. The vaccines do not prevent other sexually transmitted diseases, nor do they treat existing HPV infections or HPV-caused disease.
Because currently available HPV vaccines do not protect against all HPV infections that cause cancer, it is important for vaccinated women to continue to undergo cervical cancer screening. There could be some future changes in recommendations for vaccinated women.
Fuente: Tweet de @theNCI: https://twitter.com/theNCI/status/745934456733732864?s=09