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Could HIV self-testing be a game changer in Africa?

Could HIV self-testing be a game changer in Africa?

Source: Thomson Reuters Foundation - Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:48 GMT

LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - In Africa, where fewer than half the people know their HIV status, HIV self-testing is being explored as a way of encouraging more individuals, particularly in high risk groups, to know their status as a first step to seeking treatment, an AIDS charity said on Monday.

Despite decades of investment in testing and counselling for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS, only about 15 percent of Zambians, 25 percent of South Africans and 39 percent of Swazis had been tested for HIV in 2011, U.N. figures show. In Botswana, the rate was higher with 62 percent of the population tested for HIV in 2011.

Experts say one of the main reasons people in sub-Saharan Africa used to give for not getting tested 10 or 15 years ago was the lack of treatment for HIV. But today, drugs that can control the virus for decades are increasingly available.

"Some people continue to live in denial. But we also know that some people don't know their status because of stigma and discrimination," said Felicitas Chiganze, chief operating officer of the Southern African AIDS Trust, which works on the response to HIV in six African countries.

The group published legal research on Monday comparing laws and outlining the human rights implications of HIV self-testing in 10 countries: Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe where it works, and the United States, France, Britain and South Africa.

"We felt that if there was some initiative or some method that would enable people to know their status without going through some of the formal channels, that this could actually contribute to increasing the uptake for HIV testing," Chiganze told Thomson Reuters Foundation by telephone from Johannesburg.

She said sex workers and men who have sex with men are among the groups facing the heaviest burden of HIV, yet are some of the most hard to reach in terms of testing and treatment.

HPV and Cancer - National Cancer Institute

Asco apunta a la lucha contra el HPV para reducir el Ca. oral

HPV is the Driving Force behind the Rise of Oropharyngeal Cancer

Online Exclusives
14 Jul 2014 7:03 PM

Echa un vistazo al Tweet de @ASCO

Fuente: Connection

Alarmante incremento de infecciones por VIH en Cataluña

10/07/2014 - Diario Digital

El sida “se ha incrementado significativamente” en Cataluña: el 81% de los nuevos casos en Barcelona se da entre homosexuales. El VIH entre el colectivo gay registrado en territorio catalán aumentó un 7,6% anual entre 2001 y 2011 y supone más del 61% de los nuevos diagnósticos. "En diez años podríamos encontrarnos con una alarmante situación en la que más del 40% de los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres entre 40 y 50 años de edad vivirían con el VIH", alerta un informe

CDC promociona las vacunas contra el HPV

Increasing HPV vaccination rates can prevent 50,000 cases of cervical cancer!

New cancer diagnoses registered in England 2012

Echa un vistazo al Tweet de @CDCSTD

Fuente: CDC_Cancer

Admin Eusalud

10 most common cancers among males and females in UK 2012

10 most common cancers among males and females in UK 2012

New cancer diagnoses registered in England 2012

Key findings

  • The three most common cancers for men in 2012 remained prostate (25.9%), lung (13.6%) and colorectal (13.4%).
  • The three most common cancers for women in 2012 remained breast (30.9%), lung (11.9%) and colorectal (10.9%).
  • Liver cancer incidence has increased by 70% for males and 60% for females from 2003 to 2012. This is now the 18th most common cancer in England.
  • Malignant melanoma, a type of skin cancer, has increased by 78% among males and 48% among females from 2003 to 2012. This is now the fifth most common cancer in England.
  • Cancer incidence was more than 5% higher than expected in the north of England (North East and North West), and more than 5% lower than expected in London.
Get all the tables for this publication in the data section of this publication.

Fuente: Office National Statistics > Statistical bulletin: Cancer Registration Statistics, England, 2012
Admin Eusalud

Una buena idea: Dejar de fumar (campaña en español)

Esté libre del Tabaco. Esta es la campaña en español lanzada en los EEUU por el U.S. Department of Health & Human Services:

La campaña se ha difundido, entre otros medios, a través de Twitter desde las cuentas @HHGov y @NCImcMedia Echa un vistazo al Tweet de @NICmdMedia : Here is a Spanish version of the article on Smoking & Cancer for the LGBT Community:


Una buena idea: Dejar de fumar

Esté libre del Tabaco. Esta es la campaña lanzada en los EEUU por el U.S. Department of Health & Human Services:

Role of Pathologist - CAP

La campaña se ha difiundido, entre otros medios, a través de Twitter desde la cuenta @HHGov. Echa un vistazo al Tweet de @HHSGov

Admin Eusalud

Are human polyomaviruses co-factors for cancers induced by other oncoviruses?

Are human polyomaviruses co-factors for cancers induced by other oncoviruses?

Ugo Moens1, Marijke Van Ghelue, and Bernhard Ehlers

SUMMARY: Presently, 12 human polyomaviruses are known: BK polyomavirus (BKPyV), JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), HPyV6, HPyV7, Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus, HPyV9, HPyV10, STLPyV and HPyV12. In addition, the non-human primate polyomavirus simian virus 40 (SV40) seems to circulate in the human population. MCPyV was first described in 2008 and is now accepted to be an etiological factor in about 80% of the rare but aggressive skin cancer Merkel cell carcinoma. SV40, BKPyV and JCPyV or part of their genomes can transform cells, including human cells, and induce tumours in animal models. Moreover, DNA and RNA sequences and proteins of these three viruses have been discovered in tumour tissue. Despite these observations, their role in cancer remains controversial. So far, an association between cancer and the other human polyomaviruses is lacking. Because human polyomavirus DNA has been found in a broad spectrum of cell types, simultaneous dwelling with other oncogenic viruses is possible. Co-infecting human polyomaviruses may therefore act as a co-factor in the development of cancer, including those induced by other oncoviruses. Reviewing studies that report co-infection with human polyomaviruses and other tumour viruses in cancer tissue fail to detect a clear link between co-infection and cancer. Directions for future studies to elaborate on a possible auxiliary role of human polyomaviruses in cancer are suggested, and the mechanisms by which human polyomaviruses may synergize with other viruses in oncogenic transformation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Rev Med Virol 2014 1099-1654. DOI - 10.1002/rmv.1798

Admin Eusalud

Characterization of two new monoclonal antibodies against human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein

Characterization of two new monoclonal antibodies against human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein

Yan Wang, Qinglong Shang, Weizhen Xu, Di Li, Hongxi Gu and Lanlan Wei

Background: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. This study aimed to characterize two new monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against HPV L1 protein. Methods: The immunocompetence of AE3 and AG7 mAbs for HPV L1 protein was evaluated by Western blot analysis, immunostaining, hemagglutination inhibition assay, and ELISA. The heavy chain variable region (VH) and light chain variable region (VL) of AE3 and AG7 mAbs were sequenced and analyzed. Results: Both mAbs specifically recognized HPV16 L1 and virus-like particles (VLPs). Both the affinity and the titer of AE3 mAb were higher than that of AG7. There were differences in sequences in the complementary determining regions (CDR) 2 and 3 of VL, as well as in the CDR1 and CDR3 of VH. The two mAbs have distinct predicted three-dimensional structures. Conclusions: We characterized two mAbs neutralizing antibodies for HPV L1 protein, which would help develop genetic-engineered neutralizing antibodies against HPV16 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Diagnostic Pathology 2014, 9:101 doi:10.1186/1746-1596-9-101

Admin Eusalud

HPV Detection and Genotyping in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Northern Thailand.

HPV Detection and Genotyping in Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Northern Thailand.

Siriaunkgul S, Settakorn J, Sukpan K, Srisomboon J, Utaipat U, Lekawanvijit S, Khunamornpong S.

Abstract: Background: The study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in northern Thailand and the clinicopathological difference with regard to HPV infection status. Materials and Methods: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of vulvar SCC diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2012 were collected. HPV infection was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers MY09/11 and GP5+/6+. HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array Genotyping Test, followed by type-specific PCR targeting the E6/E7 region of HPV16/18/52 if the Linear Array test was negative. The histologic slides of vulvar lesions and the medical records were reviewed. Results: There were 47 cases of vulvar SCC included in the study (mean patient age 57.9±13.2 years). HPV infection was detected in 29 cases (62%), all of which had single HPV infections. HPV16 accounted for 23 (49%). The patients with HPV-positive SCC had a significantly younger mean age than those with HPV-negative tumors (52.7 years vs 66.2 years, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in tumor stage distribution with regard to the status of HPV infection. The presence of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) of usual type (basaloid or warty) was significantly more frequent in HPV-positive cases compared with HPV-negative cases (62% vs 6%, p<0.001), whereas differentiated-type VIN was more common in HPV-negative cases (24% vs 0%, p=0.019). Conclusions: HPV infection was detected in 62% of vulvar SCC in northern Thailand. HPV16 was the predominant genotype similar to the data reported from other regions. HPV-positive SCC occurred in younger patients compared with HPV-negative SCC, and was associated with usual-type VIN. Vaccination against HPV16/18 may potentially prevent almost one half of vulvar SCC in northern Thailand.

PMID: 24870792 [PubMed - in process]
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(8):3773-8.

Como bloquear a E6 del HPV

Identification and characterization of small molecule human papillomavirus E6 inhibitors.

Malecka KA, Fera D, Schultz DC, Hodawadekar S, Reichman M, Donover PS, Murphy ME, Marmorstein R

Abstract: Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer in women worldwide and the leading cause of women's death in developing countries. Nearly all cervical cancers are associated with infection of the human papillomavirus (HPV). This sexually transmitted pathogen disrupts the cell cycle via two oncoproteins: E6 and E7. Cells respond to E7-mediated degradation of pRB by upregulating the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. However, E6 thwarts this response by binding to the cellular E6-Associating Protein (E6AP) and targeting p53 for degradation. These two virus-facilitated processes pave the way for cellular transformation. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are available, but individuals already infected with HPV lack drug-based therapeutic options. To fill this void, we sought to identify small molecule inhibitors of the E6/E6AP interaction. We designed an ELISA-based high throughput assay to rapidly screen compound libraries and hits were confirmed in several orthogonal biochemical and cell-based assays. Over 88,000 compounds were screened; 30 had in vitro potencies in the mid-nanomolar to mid-micromolar range and were classified as validated hits. Seven of these hits inhibited p53 degradation in cell lines with HPV-integrated genomes. Two compounds of similar scaffold successfully blocked p53 degradation and inhibited cell proliferation in cells stably transfected with E6. Together, these studies suggest that small molecules can successfully block E6-dependent p53 degradation and restore p53 activity. The compounds identified here constitute attractive starting points for further medicinal chemistry efforts and development into beneficial therapeutics.

PMID: 24854633
ACS Chem Biol. 2014 May 22.

Admin Eusalud

Secuenciados los HPVs 175, 178 y 180

Complete genome sequences of three novel human papillomavirus types, 175, 178, and 180.

Johansson H, Forslund O

Abstract: We report the characterization of three novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types of the genus Gammapapillomavirus. HPV175 and HPV180 were isolated from a condyloma. HPV178 was isolated from healthy skin adjacent to an actinic keratosis.

PMID: 24855297 [PubMed]
Genome Announc. 2014 May 22;2(3). pii: e00443-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00443-14.

Admin Eusalud

Cervical Cancer Screening: Docs Unconvinced on HPV DNA Test

Cervical Cancer Screening: Docs Unconvinced on HPV DNA Test

The US Food and Drug Administration recently approved the use of a human papillomavirus (HPV) test as a primary cervical cancer screening test in women as young as 25 years, yet physicians are unlikely to ditch the Papanicolaou (Pap) test soon, experts say.

Roche's cobas test is 1 of 4 HPV tests on the market, but thus far it is the only one approved for primary screening, rather than for use in conjunction with Pap tests.

The cobas test was initially approved in April 2011 for women aged 21 to 29 years who had an abnormal Pap test and as a "co-test" with the Pap test for women aged 30 to 65 years. The test detects DNA from HPV 16 and HPV 18, the 2 types of HPV that cause 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide, as well as for DNA from 12 other high-risk types of HPV.

If the cobas test is used as a primary screen, those who test positive for HPV 16 or HPV 18 are supposed to have a colposcopy, according to the FDA. If they test positive for 1 of the other high-risk HPV types, they are supposed to have a Pap test to determine whether they need colposcopy.

"I don't know that we're going to see an immediate change in how patients are screened for cervical cancer," Levi Downs, MD, a spokesman for the Society of Gynecologic Oncology and an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Minneapolis, said to Medscape Medical News.

"We have such a good test now," Dr. Downs said, referring to the Pap test, which physicians first began using in the 1940s. "We know that it has dramatically changed the impact of cervical cancer. Physicians, I think, are going to take their time in deciding what the data (about primary screening with an HPV test) mean."

Despite its approval, critical questions remain unanswered about the HPV test as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer, David Chelmow, MD, chair of obstetrics and gynecology at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, told Medscape Medical News. For example, should women be screened more frequently or less frequently than current guidelines recommend for the Pap test? How should women aged 25 through 29 years be screened, given that the FDA approved cobas as a primary HPV test for those as young as 25 years, but current guidelines advise against routine use of an HPV test in women younger than 30 years? In addition, researchers do not yet know whether primary screening with the cobas test will lead to an increase in colposcopy and cervical biopsies compared with Pap screening.


Virtual Slides University of Paris


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